Method No. 13  (March 3, 2002)

Guest: Yasuko Toyoshima

The bulletin "Method" is an email bimonthly of free forwarding.  The 
purpose is to pursue and exhibit method arts, such as method painting, 
method poem, and method music.  If you have any trouble with receiving, 
please contact us.  We will meet your wishes.
- "Method" members:  
Hideki Nakazawa (artist), Shigeru Matsui (poet), Masahiro Miwa (composer)
- Manifestos of Methodicism
- Japanese translation

Publishing in English  by Hideki Nakazawa
Guest's manuscript:
Personal Space  by Yasuko Toyoshima
Guest's work:
Saving Figures  by Yasuko Toyoshima
Members' manuscripts:
Signs Instead of Color Dots  by Hideki Nakazawa
Purification of Poetry  by Shigeru Matsui
Music That "Could Have Been"  by Masahiro Miwa
Members' works:
A set which consists of 180 palindromic numbers (Set No. 3)
   by Hideki Nakazawa
0225~0301  by Shigeru Matsui
Propaganda Broadcast from the Head Quarters of "The New Era"
   by Masahiro Miwa
Information, Editor's notes


Method No. 13  Guest: Yasuko Toyoshima

Publishing in English
by Hideki Nakazawa

   This is the first issue of the bulletin "Method" written in English.  
So far, the bulletin has been published only in Japanese, but from this 
issue No. 13, we are going to publish the bulletin in English.  Japanese 
translation will be put on the webpage as written above.
   I also have to report that Tomomi Adachi seceded from the members, 
and that Masahiro Miwa joined us instead.  Adachi, the drafter of the 
Second Methodicist Manifesto, had been a member for two years.  Miwa, 
the observer of the Third Methodicist Manifesto, was also a guest for 
the issue No. 3 as the first musician guest.
   Now I am glad to introduce Yasuko Toyoshima, an emerging Japanese 
conceptual artist.  Her art works, like "Mini-Investment," often thrill 
us because we cannot find any evidence of art in them.  That does not 
mean they are anti-art.  Rather, I even consider they are the center of 
art in spite of, or because of, no evidence.
- Yasuko Toyoshima

Guest's manuscript & work:

Personal Space
by Yasuko Toyoshima

   In 1996 I happened to know "ONE STOCK MOVEMENT" which had appeared at 
that time as the citizen movement.  It seemed to show well how to 
recognize things and how to treat phenomena.  Taking it as accurate, I 
started my project named "Mini-Investment" in the very year I knew it.  
I opened my accounts at some securities (stock) companies.  My aim was 
not to make a profit but to keep the stock just like as a part of myself.  
In order to understand oneself and surroundings, it is a right method 
for an artist to become an investor to live in the Capitalistic society.  
It shows we already unconsciously define our own value.  By being an 
institutional investor, artists can be responsible for themselves and 
their own systems.
   In 1997, a voluntary closure of Yamaichi Securities (it was one of 
the four famous Japanese securities companies) was publicized, and also 
Sanyo Securities, Hokkaido Takushoku Bank and eight more companies like 
those announced their bankruptcy.  I bought their minimum stocks that 
dropped suddenly, and then I attended one of the final stockholders'
meetings.  That was a significant chance for me to expand my recognition, 
as it brought about more value than I had thought.  It can be said that 
my aim succeeded just when the formula I adopted failed because of its 
own constitutional reason.  There does not exist anything unsystematic 
because the unsystematic itself is a part of the system as well.
   My project titled "Opening Bank Accounts" has also started since 1996.  
I have opened 55 bank accounts, but the present situation has changed 
because of their integration and closures.  Now more than a few of my 
accounts are overlapped in some banks. 
   The word "art" is a circulation system that shifts things realistic 
to iconic, specific to universal, aggregating to personal, and vice 
   As you know, "art" cannot invent nor create a new logic. It can only 
demonstrate a part of logic that already exists.  The existence value of 
it can be confirmed only by showing paradoxically how it traces 
intangible external/internal customs.

Saving Figures
by Yasuko Toyoshima
To save figures, I collect some former currency issued under hyper 
inflation.  Paper money here presented, donation by a Yugoslav artist, 
are a 100,000,000-dinar bill, and a 500,000,000-dinar bill, etc.  The 
Milopsevic Administration issued them in 1993 as an inflationary policy.  
(I will appreciate some donation or exchange of such currency in case 
you have some from other countries.  
Please contact:

Members' manuscripts & works:

Signs Instead of Color Dots
by Hideki Nakazawa

   The structure of bitmap computer graphics (CG) is simple.  It is 
nothing but an accumulation of colored pixel-dots.  A white canvas in 
bitmap CG is an accumulation of white dots.  To paint something red is 
to change the color of the dots from white to red.  An image of bitmap 
CG results from the difference in color of the dots, such difference as 
between white and red.  Thus the structure of bitmap CG has two 
properties; one is multitudinousness of dots, the other is 
multifariousness of dots.
   The impressionist theory is similar.  An impressionist painting is an 
accumulation of brush-strokes, that is, color dots.  Remember Seurat's 
pointialism as utmost impressionism.  The so-called touch division is 
multitudinousness of dots, and the color division is multifariousness of 
   We can apply this theory not only to the Venetian school's paintings, 
but also to Demokritos's atomistic view of the world.  The structure of 
this world is an accumulation of atoms, and wood and iron are each 
composed of different atoms.  The essence of atomism is also 
multitudinousness and multifariousness.  Yes, the theory of color 
paintings from Venetian school to bitmap CG has a connection with 
atomism in its structure.  
   In my art works I use signs, such as numbers, letters, coins, 
weights, etc., instead of color dots.  An art work of mine is an
accumulation of signs which includes some different characters.  Thus 
its structure is the same as that of a color painting.  It has 
multitudinousness and multifariousness.
   I indicate that there are two standpoints in thinking about color; 
one is to stand on physiology, the other on structure.  The former is of 
retinal sensation, such as of red.  If you stand on the former, a flat 
covered by only red can be called a color painting, in spite of lack of 
multitudinousness and multifariousness.  If you stand on the latter, an 
accumulation of signs can be called a color painting, in spite of lack 
of retinal sensation.
   I think the twentieth century's reductionism, or modernism, pursued 
only the former.  But nowadays we should pursue the latter, because 
everything is made of signs, 0 and 1, in the age of "from atoms to bits" 
(by Negroponte).  So let's discard physiology and choose structure.  
That is why I use signs instead of, or as, color dots.  And that is why 
I declare my works to be of "today's impressionism." 

Purification of Poetry
by Shigeru Matsui

   What is poetry? We have been asking this question again and again
everywhere for a long time. It seems that asking this question itself
is poetry, but there have been two common knowledge that has been
existing since the time immemorial like the question for poetry. Someone
says, "Poetry is rhyme," and the other says, "Poetry is lyric."
   Rhyme of poems is a selection of codes that is structured by the
visual and auditory senses. This is the method of selecting letters for
the poems.
   Lyric of poems is a sequence of codes that is structured by narrative
time. This is the method of making rows of letters for the poems.
   It is unnecessary to say, but codes of poems are different from the
languages used in our everyday life. In other words, the meaning of
poems is not as same as what is written in letters. The structure of a
universal form is what the poems mean.
   I can define that poems are the universal forms of rhyme and lyric,
and I have been composing "Pure Poem" based on that definition. This
poem is composed of the most minimal principle of poems but has the
maximal potential of realization. That meaning that "Pure Poem" has
more possibility of poems than any of those.
   I have been composing "Pure Poem" since January 7, 2001. The series
are 27 cantos by March 1, 2002. Each title is a composing term. For
example the latest canto is "0225~0301". Each canto consists of four
hundred letters that used to be written in Chinese characters at the
beginning.  I used three Chinese characters, "1"  "2" and "3". These can
be called pure letters which writing action corresponds with meaning to
the characters. The Chinese character "1" is a horizontal line, "2" has
two horizontal lines and "3" has three horizontal lines.
   This year I stopped using Chinese characters and started using with
Roman vertical lines of "I", "II" and "III", to solve a translating
problem. Now that the Chinese characters changes international letters
with keeping symbol.
   Four hundred letters consist of three codes and are placed in
Japanese manuscript paper whose unit is twenty blanks by twenty blanks.
Therefore writing action corresponds with Japanese sense. Japanese
space-time is a square. A square is an everlasting truth against the
change from horizontal lines to vertical lines.
   "Pure Poem" consists of international letters with national form.

Music That "Could Have Been"
by Masahiro Miwa

   Some time ago I sent a message to Mr. Nakazawa saying "I have started 
method music."  It was when I had just completed a piece for harp called 
"For All Time".  I felt that way because this piece was merely a 
composition created purely with computer algorithms despite the 
definitions often cited when "promoting the method arts."  For this 
piece I devised note selection rules that determined all that should be 
on the score for the entire composition including pitch and of course 
rhythm.  This could be done without using random numbers as long as the 
initial values were established.
   On the score that I passed to the harpist were notes written 
according to traditional western musical notation and anyone who looked 
at the composition would think that it was a piece of music written by a 
composer.  However in actual fact this was not music in the normal sense 
of the word and maybe could not be called a true composition either.  It 
was really no more than a memo that told someone to use an instrument 
called a harp in a certain way.  I am merely the someone who found and 
used computer technology to define the basic principles that could 
dictate the actions of a harpist.  Yet as long as I myself am sure that 
somewhere on this earth this kind of music "could have been", it is 
music even if only to me.  "Music that could have been" was based on two 
basic principles, namely the music could be performed, and that someone 
in the world could have come up with such music without using computers. 
In other words in order to be "music that could have been" the 
composition must have been structured so that it was possible for a 
human to perform it.  That is, it was a way of representing the music, 
traditions or way of thinking of a race of people on this earth that 
would have existed even if there were no computers. 
   The fundamental theories of chaos and fractals can be explained with 
pencil and paper but actual research into these theories did not 
progress until the evolution of the computer.  In the same way, the 
"method music" that I am working on is new music made possible for the 
first time by technology, music that focuses only on performance rules.  
It is an attempt to think of music as the method of an action.

A set which consists of 180 palindromic numbers (Set No. 3)
by Hideki Nakazawa
I chose one hundred and eighty palindromic numbers, like "12321," using 
a simple rule for this set.  It is an accumulation of numbers, and these 
numbers are different from each other.  Suppose each number is like a 
colored brush-stroke.  Can you imagine a certain sensation of logical 
color, in spite of lack of real physiological color like red or blue?

by Shigeru Matsui
This work is no.27 of the searial "Pure Poem."

Propaganda Broadcast from the Head Quarters of "The New Era"
by Masahiro Miwa
I have been thinking about the ultimate presentation form of algorithmic 
compositions for a long time.  As a possible solution, I am fascinated 
with the idea of broadcasting the output of a computer live using 
streaming audio; especially in the case of realtime algorithmic 
compositions.  I have actually tried doing this.  Not only the 
algorithms for generating the music, but the configurations of the
computers for live streaming were all parts of my musical work. 


from Yasuko Toyoshima
-"Melbourne-Tokyo, Magazine / Exhibition Project : Gloss" from March 14 
to April 21 at NADiff (Tokyo) and CCP (Melbourne).  Curators: Larissa 
Hjorth, Eri Otomo, Itaru Hirano.  Artists: Martine Corompt, Candy 
Factory, Larisa Hjorth, Akira Mori, Saki Satom, Natasha Johns-Messenger,
Masato Takasaka, Yasuko Toyoshima.  Publishing magazines and a traveling 
-"NOT to be general" from June 3 to 25 at Sai Gallery (Osaka) and from 
June 8 to 30 at Media Shop (Kyoto).  Project: Shinichi Yanai.  Artists: 
Hiroko Ichihara (Japan),  Noelle Cuppens (The Netherlands), An Seebach 
(Germany), Yasuko Toyoshima (Japan).  Collaboration group show. 

from Hideki Nakazawa
- "program seed" from March 8 to 24 at Kyoto Art Center ...I will show a 
new work using 149101 coins.  See info from "Method" about the concert.
- Solo exhibition from April 6 to 27 at Gallery Cellar (Nagoya)
- "Japan and Korea Contemporary Prints Exhibition" from May 17 to June 9 
at Gallery OM (Yokohama), with Yayoi Kusama, Kim Hyung-Dae, et al.
- "Spring Permanent Exhibition" at Kitakyushu Municipal Museum of Art.
- Yuji Takahashi will play my piano piece on April 16 at Casals Hall.
- Shigeru Matsui et al. will realize my work.  See info from him.
- An essay on Yutaka Matsuzawa in February issue, and a review on 
Experimetal Workshop and Syuzo Takiguchi in March issue of Bijutsu-Techo.
- Class "Methodicist Manifesto" from May to July at Bigakko.
- The bitmap 3D software "Digital Nendo for Mac" is now available free.
- Further info

from Shigeru Matsui
- Conversation with Takashi Shinkawa  in "Gendaishi-Techo" March
- Contributed to "suigyu"
- Exhibition "Poetic Free"  on March 9 at space EDGE (Tokyo)
- Exhibition "BIENNALE DE POESIE VISUAL, 2002" May 15-25 (Tokyo)
- Concerts.  Detail will be announced soon.

from Masahiro Miwa
-Flutist Dogen Kinowaki will play "Song of Imaginary Island of Far East 
II" for Flute and Piano (composed:1992) on March 30 at Daikanyama 
Classics, Tokyo
- New CD's "Silhouette of Words, or Alleluia" (Steinhand) and "The New 
Era, Songs of the Believers" (Syoten) are now available at TowerRecords 
and NADiff, Japan
- Further info

from "Method"
- "Method Music Concert and Talk by Masahiro Miwa and Hideki Nakazawa" 
as a related event of "program seed" 1:00-3:00 pm on March 24 at the 
auditorium of Kyoto Art Center.  Admission free.  Cast: Masahiro Miwa 
(composer), Hideki Nakazawa (artist), Kazuo Amano (assistant prof. of 
Kyoto Univ. of Art & Design, for the talk only) ...Miwa will carry out 
"Shooting Star Worship," Nakazawa will present new pieces of monophony.
- "Second Method Art Festival" in April in Tokyo.  Detail will be 
announced on the webpage of the members soon.
- Back numbers are under translation from Japanese.
Guests up to the issue No. 12: Motoaki Shinohara, Toshiaki Furuya, 
Masahiro Miwa, Akira Tatehata, Kenjiro Okazaki, Haruyuki Suzuki, 
Tatsuhiko Ishii, Yutaka Matsuzawa, Yuji Takahashi, Shin Tanabe, 
Shigeyuki Toshima, Yasunao Tone.
- Those who want to subscribe for this bulletin, contact the members.

Editor's notes:
Publishing in English has brought about much more trouble than I had
imagined!  The fact we chose the language in spite of such trouble does 
not mean we discard our mother tongue.  I think we can find our own 
language more through some other language, a method poet can 
compose method music.  Anyway we want to pursue method art more
internationally. (HN)


Bimonthly Bulletin "Method"  No.13  published on March 3, 2002
Publisher: Hideki Nakazawa, Shigeru Matsui, Masahiro Miwa

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